william cavendish.jpg

AN EXCITING JOURNEY ACROSS A THOUSANDS YEARS' HISTORY

THROUGH THE EVOLUTION OF THE ONE OF A KIND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HORSE AND MAN

i nostri puledri hanno il salto nel DNA
figli di stalloni premiati allevamento cavalli Hannover Sacrofano 

CHOOSE BY PERIOD:

CHARACTERS:

 
 

THE ANCIENT WORLD

IN 350 BC THE WARRIOR AND HISTORIAN XENOPHON WROTE THE OLDEST EQUESTRIAN TECHNIQUE TREATIES IN HISTORY CALLED Περὶ ἱππικῆς (LIT. "ABOUT RIDING").

IN HIS MASTERPIECE HE ILLUSTRATES CRITERIAS ABOUT THE SELECTION, MANAGEMENT AND TRAINING OF HORSES FOR BOTH MILITARY AND WORK PURPOSES.


THROUGH THE LINES OF THIS 2700 YEARS OLD HANDBOOK WE FIND MORPHOLOGY RULES CLOSE TO MODERN STUDBOOK'S STANDARDS, INDICATIONS FOR BREAKING YOUNG HORSES, CRITERIAS TO CHOOSE AN ADULT HORSE TO BUY, PRESCRIPTIONS ABOUT STABLE LIFE AND DAILY CARE, AND FINALLY  EXERCISES FOR THE DAILY TRAINING OF "PARADE" HORSES.
IT'S NO SURPRISE THAT THE MOST CELEBRATED HORSE AND RIDER, ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND BUCEFALO WERE PART OF THIS GOLDEN AGE OF ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE.

 

 
 
jousting 2.jpg

MIDDLE AGE

SINCE THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN 476 AD, ABOUT 400 YEARS OF CONTINUOUS  INVASIONS BROUGHT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL TURMOIL .

AT THE END OF THE "DARK AGE" DUST HAD SETTLED IN A FEUDAL SYSTEM RULED BY KINGS AND WARLORDS.
THE REFINED CULTURE OF MORPHOLOGICAL SELECTION AND PROGRESSIVE TRAINING WERE FORGOTTEN  AND HORSES' ROLE WAS REDUCED TO MERE MEAN OF TRANSPORT OR WORK IN THE FIELDS, ONLY EXCEPTION BEING JOUSTING TOURNAMENTS PERFORMED BY THE NEW BORN ARISTOCRACY.
IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES THIS TRADITION WAS DESCRIBED BY DUARTE I, KING OF PORTUGAL IN HIS "LIVRO DE CAVALGAR" (LIT. HANDBOOK OF RIDING"), A MEDIEVAL MANUSCRIPT FILLED WITH MINIATURES DESCRIBING THE RIGHT WAY OF RIDING, MAINLY ABOUT KEEPING A REGAL POSTURE AND KEEP STEADY IN THE SADDLE AGAINST THE IMPACT OF THE  ADVERSARY'S SPEAR

THE RENAISSANCE

THE FIRST ACADEMY IS BORN IN NAPLES, ITALY

THE DISCOVERY OF ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS AFTER THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE AND THE BIRTH OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE FOSTERED  THE ATTEMPT TO CREATE AN EFFECTIVE AND UNIVERSALLY RECOGNIZED METHOD AND  IN 1490 THE FIRST HORSE RIDING ACADEMY IS BORN IN NAPLES.


THE MASTER RIDERS OF THIS NEW INSTITUTION WILL SHAPE THE ART OF RIDING IN THE WHOLE CONTINENT FOR A CENTURY.

FEDERIGO GRISONE
BORN IN NAPLES IN A NOBLE FAMILY HE SERVED AS MASTER RIDER IN THE ACADEMY BUILT FOR HIM BY KING FERDINAND OF NAPLES.
IN 1550 HE PUBLISHED THE FIRST COMPLETE WORK SINCE THE TIMES OF XENOPHON "THE ORDERS OF RIDING" WHOSE SUCCESS WAS SO GREAT  THAT IN THE YEARS BETWEEN 1550 AND 1623, 21 ITALIAN EDITIONS WERE PRINTED OF WHICH 15 TRANSLATED IN FRENCH, SEVEN IN FRENCH , SIX  IN ENGLISH AND ONE IN SPANISH.

GIOVAN BATTISTA PIGNATELLI
BORN IN NAPLES IN 1540 HE WROTE A REVISION OF GRISONE'S METHOD CALLED "BEAUTIFUL SECRETS OF HORSES ", 
IN CONCEIVING HIS SYSTEM HE ALSO INVENTED THE PILLARS, THE HALTER, AND THE THREE-PIECE  SNAFFLE TO REDUCE PRESSURE ON THE HORSE'S PALATE (STILL IN USE IN TODAY!)
ALL THE MOST IMPORTANT HOUSES OF THE CONTINENT SEND THEIR CHILDREN TO NAPLES TO ACQUIRE THE INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES OF THE ITALIAN SCHOOL, INCLUDING THE VERY YOUNG
ANTOINE DE PLUVINEL

WHO, AFTER 6 YEARS, ON HIS RETURN TO FRANCE BECAME THE ROYAL FAMILY'S MAESTRO FOR HENRY III, HENRI IV, AND LOUIS XIII 
 

 
 
 
 

VERSAILLES, THE ACADEMY BY LOUIS XIV

IN THE FOOTSTEPS  OF THE ITALIAN ACADEMY IN NAPLES HORSE RIDING SCHOOLS FLOURISHED  ALL OVER THE CONTINENT
LOUIS  XIV FOUNDED THE VERSAILLES ACADEMY IN THE MOST PRESTIGIOUS HEADQUARTERS, HIS NEW PALACE THAT FRAMED  THE MOST LAVISH  COURT IN EUROPE

WILLIAM CAVENDISH

COUNT OF NEWCASTLE AND AFTER THE ENGLISH RESTORATION ELEVATED TO DUKE WAS 
DEDICATED SINCE A VERY YOUNG AGE TO

LEARNING DRESSAGE  IN THE FAMILY HOME 
BOLSOVER CASTLE  IN DERBYSHIRE WHERE HE COMMISSIONED THE BUILDING OF AN INDOOR MANEGE OPPOSITE TO THE LONG WING HE ARRANGED FOR A ROYAL VISIT.

DURING HIS PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN BOLSOVER, HE PERFECTED HIS KNOWLEDGE OF LATERAL SCHOOL MOVEMENTS AND THEIR USE IN BATTLE. IN ADDITION TO THE SPANISH WALK AS AN OFFENSIVE MOVE  AND THE CAPRIOLE AS AN EVASIVE MANEUVER, HE WAS THE FIRST TO USE THE PIROUETTE AS A TACTIC TO CHANGE DIRECTION QUICKLY.

IN 1648 HE LEFT ENGLAND IN VOLUNTARY EXILE AND, MOVING TO PARIS, HE DIRECTED THE SCHOOL OF VERSAILLES ON BEHALF OF LOUIS XIV, WHERE HE PERFECTED THE POSITION
OF HIS STUDENTS BINDING THEM FOR 3 YEARS WITHOUT STIRRUPS.
LEAVING THE FRENCH COURT, HE  MOVED TO  ROTTERDAM AND OPENED HIS  OWN SCHOOL IN THE  RUBENSHUIS, WHERE THE FAMOUS PAINTER HIMSELF HAD LIVED.
IN THIS PHASE OF HIS LIFE HE INVENTED THE DRAW REINS AND WROTE HIS MASTERPIECE 
"THE NEW METHOD OF TRAINING THE HORSE"

 

cavalli in vendita pronti per salto ostacoli C130- C140 direttamente dall'allevatore senza intermediari a Roma Nord Sacrofano 

FRANCOIS ROBICHON DE LA GUERINIERE

BORN IN 1688 IN ESSAY, FRANCE.
IN 1715 HE  BECAME ECUYER (OFFICER OF CAVALRY)  BY APPOINTMENT OF THE COUNT D'ARMAGNAC, GRAND ECUYER OF  FRANCE, BUT INSTEAD OF BEING BOUND TO KEEP IN  THE SHADOW OF HIGHER RANKS  IN THE SCHOOL OF VERSAILLES HE OFFERED HIMSELF TO RESTORE  THE ROYAL STABLES AT THE  TUILERIES (ABANDONED AROUND 70 YEARS EARLIER BY LOUIS XIV)  AND OPEN A NEW SCHOOL THERE. LITTLE WOULD HE KNOW THAT THE SAME INDOOR MANEGE HE HAD RENOVATED WOULD BE USED BY THE REVOLUTIONARIES AS THE COURT ROOM BIG ENOUGH TO ACCOMODATE THE "ROYAL TRIAL " THAT WOULD SEND KING LOUIS XVI TO THE GUILLOTINE.
HIS TECHNIQUE WAS  PROGRESSIVE, LOGICAL AND RATIONAL AND CAN BE CONSIDERED AS THE BASIS OF MODERN RIDING
HIS METHOD STARTS FROM THE NEED FOR GYMNASTICS EXERCISES IN A STRAIGHT LINE WITH HALF STOPS AND THE INTRODUCTION OF A MOVEMENT OF HIS INVENTION: THE SHOULDER IN.
HIS METHOD AND THE SHOULDER IN WERE  REALLY EFFECTIVE, HIS FAME GREW AND HIS TECHINQUE SPREAD IN ALL THE SCHOOLS OF THE CONTINENT.

 
 

ANTOINE-HENRI-PHILIPPE-LEON CARTIER

VISCOUNT D'AURE

BORN IN 1799 IN THE WAKE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION , HE BECAME ECUYER OF THE SCHOOL OF VERSAILLES WHERE HE WAS FOLLOWED BY THE INSTRUCTOR OF THE KINGS MIRACULOUSLY SAVED FROM  THE GUILLOTINE : PIERRE-MARIE D'ABZAC  (HE WAS MAESTRO FOR LOUIS XVI, XVIII AND CHARLES X) IN THE MOST PRESTIGIOUS ACADEMY IN FRANCE  UNTIL 1830 (YEAR OF CONVERSION OF THE ENTIRE VERSAILLES COMPLEX INTO MUSEUM BY KING LOUIS PHILIPPE ) IT WAS CLOSED.


IN THE YEARS TO COME HE MANAGED THREE PRIVATE RIDING SCHOOLS IN PARIS UNTIL HE WAS CALLED TO WORK FOR THE ARMY AGAIN IN THE NEW CAVALRY BARRACKS IN SAUMUR


DURING HIS MANAGEMENT OF THE ACADEMY OF SAUMUR HE BECAME INVOLVED IN  THE FAMOUS  QUERELLE WITH HIS CONTEMPORARY HORSEMAN FRANCOIS BAUCHER. THE TWO CHAMPIONED THE TWO CONFLICTING PERSPECTIVES OF THE ERA: REASON (ILLUMINISM OF THE ANCIENT REGIME) AND FEELING (EXPRESSION OF THE NEW ROMANTIC MOVEMENT). WHILE HIS RIVAL BAUCHER PUBLISHED HIS TREATISE

"L'EQUITATION RAISONNE"
(REASONED HORSE RIDING) WHERE ANALYSIS AND SCIENCE OF THE HORSE'S BODY AND THE WAY TO DOMINATE IT TOOK THE CENTER STAGE , ANTOINE-HENRI D'AURE PUBLISHED HIS TRAITE' D'EQUITATION WHERE HE DEFINED THE FUNDAMENTAL ROLE OF THE RIDER AND THE HORSE'S  INSTINCTIVE AND PRACTICAL SIDE REPRESENTING THE ROMANTIC  SIDE OF EQUESTRIANISM

 

.HIS PRACTICAL APPROACH WAS INDEED MUCH MORE ACCESSIBLE AND QUICK IN PROVIDING EFFECTIVE FUNDAMENTALS AND BECAME THE MAIN CHOICE FOR THE ARMY TO TRAIN LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE.

IT'S SUCCESS IS WELL REPRESENTED  BY THE FACT IT WAS  REPRINTED 9 TIMES AND NAPOLEON III PROMOTED D'AURE TO THE  LEGION OF HONOR FOR SPECIAL MERITS

 
 

FRANCOIS BAUCHER

BORN IN 1796 IN VERSAILLES ONLY THREE YEARS AFTER THE EXECUTION OF LUIGI XVI, IN THE WAKE OF THE REVOLUTION, HE WAS SON OF A WINE DEALER AND  EMBODIED THE NEW WIND OF FREEDOM RISEN FROM THE ASHES OF THE  ANCIEN REGIME 
WITH THE HELP OF  HIS UNCLE HE WENT TO  MILAN, ITALY, WHERE THANKS TO  THE PROTECTION OF PRINCE BORGHESE  HE WAS ABLE TO APPROACH THE EQUESTRIAN WORLD  AN EXCLUSIVE PRIVILEGE OF ARISTOCRACY UNTIL THEN, TRAINED BY THE FAMOUS FEDERIGO MAZZUCCHELLI.


IN 1812 HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND BEGAN WORKING IN THE SMALL TOWNS 
OF ROUEN AND LE HAVRE  WHERE IN  1833 HE  PUBLISHED HIS FIRST METHOD IN THE FAMOUS "DICTIONNAIRE RAISONNE 'DE L'EQUITATION" IN WHICH DESCRIBES A SERIES OF FLEXIONS TO PERFORM FROM THE GROUND FIRST  AND IN SADDLE NEXT  TO ACHIEVE RELAXATION OF THE NECK, CHEEK, AND BACK OF THE HORSE. HIS EXCESSIVELY MECHANICAL APPROACH MADE HIM COLLIDE WITH THE VIEWS OF HIS CONTEMPORARY RIVAL  ANTOINE-HENRI D'AURE AND HIS INSTINCTIVE APPROACH.

HE GOT SERIOUSLY INJURUIED IN HIS LEFT LEG WHEN A CHANDELIER FELL ON HIM FROM THE CEILING OF AN INDOOR ARENA HE WAS SUPPOSED TO PERFORM IN DURING A SHOW IN PARIS. HIS LEG BEING IRRIMEDIABLY COMPROMISED HE NO LONGER PERFORMED IN PUBLIC AND RETIRED TO RIDING UNDER CLOSED DOORS ONLY. 
HIS NEW PHISICAL CONDITION FORCED HIM TO REARRANGE HIS METHOD TO ACHIEVE THE SAME RESULT IN A MORE HARMONIOUS WAY LEVERAGING ON THE HORSE'S NATURAL BALANCE AND IMPULSE AND STUDIYING THE EFFECTS OF THE RIDER'S SIMULTANEOUS AND COORDINATED ACTIONS ON IT.  IN THIS PHASE OF HIS LIFE HE ALSO INVENTED THE BAUCHER SNAFFLE WHICH IS STILL IN USE TODAY.

 

 

comprare direttamente dall'allevatore cavalli salto ostacoli offre dei vantaggi. cavalli in vendita, vendo cavallo, cavalli salto ostacoli in vendita a Sacrofano,vendita allevamento e vendita cavalli pronti per categorie C130 140 .Risultati documentati FISE. vedi video cavalli invendita a Roma cavalli, cavalli tedeschi in vndita salto ostacoli, cavalliinvenditasalto ostacoli, SALTO OSTACOLI IN VENDITA LAZIO, ROMA CAVALLI IN VENDITA , 

GEN. ALEXIS L'HOTTE

BORN IN 1825, HE SPENT HIS CHILDHOOD ATTENDING THE SCHOOL OF VERSAILLES DIRECTED BY ANTOINE-HENRI D'AURE UP TO 15 YEARS OLD.  WHEN IN 1840 KING LUIS PHILIPPE TRANSFORMED THE COMPLEX OF LUIGI XIV IN A NATIONAL MUSEUM HE WAS TRANSFERED TO THE NEW EQUESTRIAN FACILITIES IN SAUMUR. DURING HIS LONG CAREER AS OFFICER HE STOOD OUT IN NUMEROUS MILITARY OPERATIONS AS AND ROSE BRILLIANTLY AMONG THE RANKS UNTIL IN  1864, HE WAS APPOINTED ECUYER EN CHEF OF SAUMUR'S CADRE NOIR BY NAPOLEON III IN PERSON.


HIS PERIOD IN SAUMUR REPRESENTED THE MOMENT OF SYNTHESIS BETWEEN THE RIDING SYSTEM OF D'AURE AND BAUCHER (L'HOTTE HAD PERSONALLY TRAINED WITH BOTH).
THE METHOD OF L'HOTTE IS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY AND THE AVOIDANCE  OF INTERFERENCE WITH THE HORSE'S NATURAL MOVEMENTS ON ONE SIDE AND THE APPLICATION IN TRAINING OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF DRESSAGE TO ACHIEVE  THE "WELL TRAINED HORSE" IN L'HOTTE 'S WORDS THE FORMULA : CALM , FORWARD AND STRAIGHT.


 HE RETIRED FROM MILITARY SERVICE  AT THE AGE OF 70, COVERED WITH HONORS AS ARMY BRIGADE GENERAL HE WAS ELEVATED TO  MEMBER OF THE LEGION OF HONOR, HE DEDICATED HIS OLD AGE  TO WRITING  HIS MEMOIRS AND TECHNIQUE IN HIS TREATISE "QUESTIONS EQUESTRES"
STILL TODAY ALEXIS L'HOTTE IS CONSIDERED THE FOUNDER OF CADRE NOIR AND FRENCH RIDING ALL OVER THE WORLD

 
 

GUSTAV STEINBRECHT

 SCALES OF TRAINING, THE REVOLUTION OF DRESSAGE

BORN IN 1808 IN SAXONY, AT THE TIME PART OF THE PRUSSIAN EMPIRE . STEINBRECHT GOT INTERESTED IN HORSES AT FIRST AS A VETERINARY ENTHUSIAST AND, AS HE GRADUATED FROM HIGH SCHOOL , WENT TO BERLIN WHERE HE OBTAINED THE DEGREE. 
ALONG THE PATH OF  HIS STUDIES IN THE GERMAN CAPITAL, HE FOUND OUT HIS TRUE PASSION WAS RIDING INSTEAD SO, HE DEDICATED  EIGHT YEARS LEARNING DRESSAGE  FROM THE GREAT LOUIS SEEGER  WHOM ALSO BECAME HIS RELATIVE WHEN HE MARRIED  THE GRAND-DAUGHTER. IN 1843 HE BEGAN HIS SOLO CAREER AT  FIRST IN  STABLE FOR RENT THEN IN A STABLE OF HIS OWN  IN DESSAU, CLOSE TO HIS FAMILY HOME


GUSTAV STEINBRECHT FIERCELY CRITICISED THE METHODS OF THE FRENCH RIDERS, ESPECIALLY FRANCOIS BAUCHER.  HE, ON THE OTHER HAND  CONCEIVED PROBABLY THE MOST PROGRESSIVE AND ORGANIC METHOD OF THE HISTORY SINCE IT WAS THE PERFECT MIX OF RIDING AND SCIENCE DUE TO HIS VETERINARY DEGREE. 
STEINBRECHT'S SYSTEM IS  STILL CONSIDERED THE FOUNDATION OF DRESSAGE AND CONSEQUENTLY OF TRAINING FOR ALL MODERN OLYMPIC DISCIPLINES. IT  WAS FORMALLY EXPOSED IN HIS TREATISE "DAS GYMNASIUM DES PFERDES" LITERALLY "THE GYM OF HORSES" THAT WAS PUBLISHED ONLY AFTER HIS DEATH BY ONE OF HIS STUDENTS.
THE EXTRAORDINARY MODERNITY OF STEINBRECHT METHOD RESIDES IN FOCUSING ON  IMPULSE AND SHOULDER ALIGNMENT CREATING A 6 POINTS  STRATEGY FOR BOTH THE TRAINING  AS A YEARS- LONG PATH AND AS DAILY SESSION.

HIS POINTS OR SCALES OF TRAINING ARE:


RHYTHM

SUPPLENESS

CONTACT

IMPULSION

STRAIGHTNESS

COLLECTION

 

STEINBRECHT'S REVOLUTION HAS HAD SUCH A HUGE IMPACT THAT THE FEI (FEDERATION EQUESTRE INTERNATIONALE) STILL TODAY USES THE 6 POINTS TO JUDGE DRESSAGE TESTS OF ANY LEVEL 


"The scales of training are the stepping stones that riders live by when training horses. Over the years and across a number of nations, all who produce and ride horses use these as their 'mantra'. They also form the basis of what judges look for in horses during the test."
                                        Cit. BRITISH DRESSAGE

 

FEDERIGO CAPRILLI

THE NATURAL SYSTEM AND MODERN RIDING ARE BORN

BORN IN LIVORNO IN 1868, HE IS CONSIDERED WORLDWIDE THE FATHER OF JUMPING AND EVENTING


AT THE AGE OF 18 HE JOINED THE MILITARY ACADEMY IN MODENA AND WAS PARADOXICALLY INDICATED AS PHYSICALLY UNSUITABLE FOR RIDING.THANKS TO HIS DETERMINATION AND INSUFFERENCE TOWARDS THE AUTHORITY OF HIS SUPERIORS HE EVENTUALLY MANAGED TO BE ASSIGNED TO CAVALRY  ANYWAY.

DURING HIS TWO TERMS AT THE ACADEMY HE GOT ACQUAINTED WITH SOME OF THE BIG NAMES OF THE ITALIAN HIGH SOCIETY, INCLUDING GIANNI AGNELLI AND COUNT EMANUELE CARCHERANO DE BRICHERASIO, WHO WILL LEAVE THE MILITARY CAREER SOON AFTER,TO FOUND THE FAMOUS CAR MANUFACTURING BRAND  FIAT.

AT THE END OF MILITARY TRAINING  HE WAS STILL MARKED AS "MEDIOCRE" IN RIDING BY HIS TEACHERS, AND SOON HE WAS TRANSFERRED TO THE CAVALRY  SCHOOL OF PINEROLO WHERE HIS EQUESTRIAN QUALITIES IMPROVED SO  QUICKLY HE WAS LATER CHOSEN TO REPRESENT THE SCHOOL IN THE "ADVANCED CROSS COUNTRY TRAINING CAMP" THAT WOULD BE HELD IN THE NEW FACILITIES BUILT BY WAR MINISTER LUIGI PELLOUX IN TOR DI QUINTO, ROME.

THE APPOINTED MAESTRO IN ROME WAS MARQUIS LUCIANO DI ROCCAGIOVINE AND HIS REMARKS ON CAPRILLI WERE SO ENTHUSIASTIC THAT, ONCE THE COURSE WAS OVER, HE OFFERED HIM A PROMOTION TO CAPTAIN IF HE WOULD  STAY AND HELP HIM WITH TRAINING NEW RECRUITS.
THIS NEW POSITION BROUGHT A NEW WAVE OF FAME AND PRESTIGE FOR THE YOUNG FEDERIGO IN THE CAPITAL, HE SOON BECAME TRAINER FOR COUNT GIAN GIACOMO TRISSINO AND OTHER CELEBRITIES OF THE TIME.  

 

IN THIS PHASE OF HIS LIFE HE STARTED STUDIYING BIOMECHANICS OF THE HORSE AND THANKS TO OBSERVATION AND THE USE OF CAMERAS TO RECORD AND WATCH IN SLOW MOTION HE CONCEIVED THE "BALANCED POSITION" ON JUMPS, WHERE THE RIDER'S HANDS AND SHOULDERS MOVE FORWARD TO ALLOW THE DISTENSION OF THE HORSE'S NECK IN THE AIR.
THIS COPERNICAN REVOLUTION ALLOWED HIM TO REACH UNCONCEIVABLE RECORDS FOR THE TIMES BOTH IN  HEIGHT (2.08M) AND LONG (6.28M) IN THE OCCASION OF THE TORINO HORSE RIDING COMPETITION.


IN 1906 HE TOOK PART FOR THE FIRST TIME AT THE OLYMPICS IN ATHENS WHERE HE SHOWED THE WORLD THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HIS NEW METHOD. (SOME SUSPECT IT WAS IN REALITY HIS SECOND, AND THAT IT WAS HIM WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE PLACE OF HIS STUDENT COUNT GIAN GIACOMO TRISSINO AT THE PARIS GAMES OF 1900, WINNING SILVER)


IN 1905 HE HELD  A COURSE IN THE ROYAL PALACE OF STUPINIGI FOR 7 FOREIGN OFFICERS WHO CAME TO LEARN AND EXPORT HIS REVOLUTIONARY METHOD.
IN THE SPRING OF 1907 HE WON THE TITLE OF  ITALIAN CHAMPION AND SUDDENLY DIED IN DECEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR.